Petersburg, Russia Russian novelist and author The Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky was well known in his country during his life and has since been praised around the world as a writer.
The novel is divided into two parts. The introduction to the chapters propounds a number of riddles whose meanings are further developed as the narration continues.
Chapters 2, 3 and 4 deal with suffering and the irrational pleasure of suffering. Chapters 5 and 6 Understanding dostoevsky the moral and intellectual fluctuation the narrator feels along with his conscious insecurities regarding "inertia"—inaction. Chapters 7, 8 and 9 cover theories of reason and logic, closing with the last two chapters as a summary and transition into Part 2.
The narrator's desire for happiness is exemplified by his liver pain and toothache. The narrator mentions that utopian society removes suffering and pain, but man desires both things and needs them to be happy.
According to the narrator, removing pain and suffering in society takes away a Understanding dostoevsky freedom. This parallels Raskolnikov 's behavior in Dostoevsky's later novel, Crime and Punishment.
He says that the cruelty of society makes human beings moan about pain only to spread their suffering to others. He builds up his own paranoia to the point that he is incapable of looking his co-workers in the eye. He feels that others like him exist, but he continuously concentrates on his spitefulness instead of on actions that would help him avoid the problems that torment him.
He even admits that he would rather be inactive out of laziness. To the reader, the Underground Man has a contradictory personality because he gives the reader concepts that are commendable, but the reader is repulsed by his actions later in the novel. The first part also gives a harsh criticism of determinism and intellectual attempts at dictating human action and behavior by logic which the Underground Man mentions in terms of a simple math problem two times two makes four see also necessitarianism.
He states that despite humanity's attempt to create the "Crystal Palace," a reference to a famous symbol of utopianism in Nikolai Chernyshevsky 's What Is to Be Done?
The Underground Man ridicules the type of enlightened self-interest egoism, selfishness that Chernyshevsky proposes as the foundation of Utopian society. The concept of cultural and legislative systems relying on this rational egoism is what the protagonist despises.
The Underground embraces this ideal in praxisand he seems to blame it for his current state of unhappiness. In other works, Dostoevsky again confronts the concept of free will and constructs a negative argument to validate free will against determinism in the character Kirillov's suicide in his novel The Demons.
Notes from Underground marks the starting point of Dostoevsky's move from psychological and sociological themed novels to novels based on existential and general human experience in crisis. The first is his obsession with an officer who frequently passes by him on the street, seemingly without noticing his existence.
He sees the officer on the street and thinks of ways to take revenge, eventually borrowing money to buy a higher class overcoat and bumping into the officer to assert his equality.
To the Underground Man's surprise, however, the officer does not seem to notice that it even happened.
|webkandii.com: Dostoevsky: The Miraculous Years, (): Joseph Frank: Books||Ruled by despots for most of our history, we are used to living in fiction rather than reality. How can classic Russian fiction cast light on the leader and his aggressive policies?|
|Understanding Dostoevsky - Essay||In the age he wrote, Dostoevsky must have seemed eccentric and outlandish; nevertheless, looking back on him from today with a literary understanding of modernism, he appears ahead of his time. Put another way, according to Dostoevsky, the freedom of choice is what makes us human, despite the consequences and destruction our selections might cause.|
|User Contributions:||From there he was assigned to a Moscow hospital, where he served as military doctor, and inhe was appointed a senior physician.|
The second segment is a going away dinner party with some old school friends to bid Zverkov, one of their number, goodbye as he is being transferred out of the city. The underground man hated them when he was younger, but after a random visit to Simonov's, he decides to meet them at the appointed location.
They fail to tell him that the time has been changed to six instead of five, so he arrives early. He gets into an argument with the four of them after a short time, declaring to all his hatred of society and using them as the symbol of it. At the end, they go off without him to a secret brothel, and, in his rage, the underground man follows them there to confront Zverkov once and for all, regardless if he is beaten or not.
He arrives at the brothel to find Zverkov and the others already retired with prostitutes to other rooms. He then encounters Liza, a young prostitute, with whom he goes to bed. The story cuts to Liza and the underground man lying silently in the dark together.
The Underground Man confronts Liza with an image of her future, by which she is unmoved at first, but after challenging her individual utopian dreams similar to his ridicule of The Crystal Palace in Part 1she eventually realizes the plight of her position and how she will slowly become useless and will descend more and more, until she is no longer wanted by anyone.
The thought of dying such a terribly disgraceful death brings her to realize her position, and she then finds herself enthralled by the underground man's seemingly poignant grasp of the destructive nature of society. He gives her his address and leaves. After this, he is overcome by the fear of her actually arriving at his dilapidated apartment after appearing such a "hero" to her and, in the middle of an argument with his servant, she arrives.
He then curses her and takes back everything he said to her, saying he was, in fact, laughing at her and reiterates the truth of her miserable position. Near the end of his painful rage he wells up in tears after saying that he was only seeking to have power over her and a desire to humiliate her.
He begins to criticize himself and states that he is in fact horrified by his own poverty and embarrassed by his situation.Fyodor Dostoevsky was born in Moscow, Russia, on November 11, , the son of a doctor. His family was very religious, and Dostoevsky was deeply religious all his life.
He began reading widely when he was a youth. He was first educated by his mother, father, and tutors, but at thirteen years old he.
Critical to understanding Dostoevsky’s political teaching is recognizing the pervasiveness Vladimir Soloviev’s political views in The Brothers Karamazov. Soloviev was a dear friend of Dostoevsky’s who envisioned an expansive theocratic regime ultimately directed by Russian Orthodox Church.
While confronting Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground seems a difficult task initially, one must be able to transcend the elaborate diction and parodies, and comprehend the author himself, while also taking root the message Dostoevsky had originally intended in the time it was addressed.
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